How Wastewater Screening Equipment Works

Wastewater is one of the most common forms of pollution, and in the United States there are wastewater treatment facilities to control this. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), wastewater contains large solids and grit that can interfere with treatment processes or cause undue mechanical wear. Over time, this increases maintenance on wastewater treatment equipment. In order to minimize problems, these materials require separate and special handling and maintenance. The EPA recognizes preliminary forms of wastewater treatment as screening, grit removal, septage handling, odor control, and flow equalization. Facilities that clean wastewater, such as water treatment centers clean it before  discharging it back into the environment. This can be done with machinery (both manual and mechanical). Machinery that has been especially engineered for wastewater treatment is most efficient. Let’s take a deeper look at some of the ways wastewater screening works.

Wastewater Screening Devices

In general, wastewater screening devices are classified based on the amount of material that is being removed from them. The design elements that classify screening equipment are size, depth, width, the screen’s angle, approach velocity of the channel, the discharge height, wind and other aesthetic considerations. There are different types of screening devices, both manual and mechanical.

There are different types of wastewater screens which include coarse screens, fine screens, and communitors and grinders (which are typically used at a smaller treatment facility). Screens can be made of a simple trash rack, or can be as complex as a mechanical bar system. There are also hydrocyclone systems which are devices used to separate liquids from solids, or grit from sludge, directly from the wastewater. The EPA identifies the specifications for the screens below:

Coarse Screens – Coarse screens remove large solids, rags, and debris from wastewater, and typically have openings of 6 mm (0.25 in) or larger.

Fine Screens -Fine screens are typically used to remove material that may create operation and maintenance problems in downstream processes, particularly in systems that lack primary treatment. Typical opening sizes for fine screens are 1.5 to 6 mm (0.06 to 0.25 in). Very fine screens with openings of 0.2 to 1.5 mm (0.01 to 0.06 in).

Communitors and Grinders – Comminuting and grinding devices (which consist of rotating slotted cylinders) are installed in the wastewater flow channel to grind and shred material up to 6 to 19 mm (0.25 to 0.75 in) in size

Hydrocyclone Systems – This is a system that separates liquids from solids directly from the wastewater. Heavier grit and suspended solids collect on the sides and bottom of the cyclone, while scum and lighter solids are removed from the center through the top of the cyclone.

Manual and Mechanical Screening Equipment

There are both manually cleaned and mechanically cleaned bar screens. A bar screen is essentially a heavy duty screen that uses a reciprocating rake which cleans the wastewater bar screen by pulling out debris.

In general, manually cleaned screens will require frequent raking to avoid them getting clogged up. This also avoids a buildup of solids on the screen itself and backwater levels from rising. Keep in mind that this manual work will require more labor costs over time. The time that is taken to clean the screen manually will also detract from the time it is serving its purpose, which can also cause overflow of waste solids.

Mechanical screens, on the other hand, aren’t subject to the same concerns, but they do require higher maintenance costs. Overall, you want to make sure you have a system that is the most efficient for your facility and needs. The Environmental Protection Agency suggests that plants utilizing mechanically cleaned screens should have a standby screen to put into operation when the primary screening device is out of service — which is a standard design practice for many newly designed plants. Having a replacement screen will prevent clogging and backup, similarly to concerns for when a manual screen is being cleaned. Larger facilities are more likely to use a mechanical screen in order to reduce labor costs (as the equipment is more costly itself), and to improve the conditions of the overall flow of the wastewater and water treatment  process. The cost for screens varies, of course, depending on the technology that is used and that is available in each particular area.

Efficient Wastewater Equipment

Our wastewater treatment equipment is efficient in that it screens, washes, compacts and dewaters in one smooth, seamless operation. This equipment is designed to handle wastewater, septage, sludge, scum, and grease.  Our equipment offers:

  • Compact design with screening and grit removal in one unit
  • Security control station allows access for authorized haulers
  • All stainless steel construction resists corrosion
  • Available for indoor or outdoor environments
  • Multiple sized units to suit your application
  • Unload up to two (2) waste haulers at the same time

Selecting A Wastewater Treatment System

When considering a wastewater treatment system, you want to select one that is appropriate for your needs. Keep in mind your location, facility, anticipated costs, the size of the system, and its overall functioning. One of the most important components of a water treatment system is the screen. As discussed, screens come in different sizes, depths, widths, and different designs according to the technology available in the area as well as for your budget. Overall, mechanical screens are commonly used in larger treatment facilities and require lower labor costs.  No matter what type of equipment you choose, it is important to have a backup screen so your operations can run smoothly, avoiding backup and unnecessary problems. If you are looking for a water treatment system, take a look at our specially engineered equipment with quality materials which has been made to maximize efficiency and minimize setbacks.

How Grit Collection Technology Helps Keep Equipment Running and Water Cleaner

What is grit collection technology? Before you can think of that, you have to think about grit. Grit is the fine particles of matter like sand, sludge, and other abrasives found that finds its way into sewers and septic tanks or that comes from rivers, lakes, and streams.

Wastewater grit is especially troublesome. It’s more than sand. It can be eggshells, bones, and coffee grounds that go down the sink. It can be the sand and gravel that washes from a street into a sewer drain. These materials are never a consistent size or shape.

Now think about the industrial settings and treatment plants that encounter grit in water or other liquids. Not only can they clog equipment, but the abrasive materials wear down parts over time. It gets costly. Grit collection technology is the equipment and processes that clear grit and other particles from water before it’s used in industrial or residential settings.

How Does a Wastewater Treatment Plant Clean the Water?

Wastewater treatment plants use grit collection technology every day. Not only must these plants remove odors and bacteria, but they also need to take the wastewater and make it clean. This is a multi-step process.

  1. A screw pump controls the rate at which water flows. Bearings are important to the screw pump’s lifespan, so you want quality components. Lakeside Equipment has engineers that look at the lift and flow rates you need, and consider those with the incline and required speed in order to develop the ideal pump for you.
  2. Screens filter all large materials like paper towels, plastic wrappers, and toilet paper to prevent damage to pipes and avoid clogs. As wastewater continues through the equipment, the screens get smaller and smaller. Screens may start with gaps of 1.5 mm and go as small as 0.06 mm. To clean the screens, there may be a trash or screen rake that automatically clears and removes the debris.
  3. In between the different screen sizes, there are grinders that grind the waste. The idea is to keep grinding the waste and catching it in filters until the water that passes is clean.
  4. There are also comminutors that capture the large material and chop it into more uniform sizes for the grinders to work with.
  5. Grit chambers and grit collectors are the pieces of equipment that collect the grit so it can be taken to a landfill or facility for disposal.

To get to the cleanest water possible, you need a system that effectively filters out silt and other particles. These steps are all part of the basic process. There are several systems available, and each works a little differently depending on the components you choose.

Types of Grit Removal Systems

Lakeside Equipment Corporation specializes in several types of grit removal systems. There are advantages to each one.

Aeroductor – The Aeroductor system avoids having any motorized parts that are submerged. It can be constructed from stainless steel to prevent corrosion. Its biggest benefit is that it can separate and wash grit at the same time.

Headworks Packaged System – H-PAC systems are stainless steel and prevent corrosion. It has by-pass options for the grit chamber and screen.

Grit Classifier – There are several types of Grit Classifier systems to allow you to find the best solution for your needs. A screw conveyor gets rid of grit that is ready to be disposed of. That screw conveyor is designed for strength and durability.

In-Line Grit Collector – In-line is an affordable system that uses aeration to keep particles from settling. It’s best for a system where the flow rate is under 6.0 million gallons per day. Motorized parts remain above water for easy maintenance.

Raptor – If you need a grit removal system that has a conical design where grit and particles are washed and separated with precision, the Raptor Grit Washer is a good choice. It’s made from stainless steel to help prevent corrosion. It handles a variety of flow rates and reaches grit discharge rates of 90 percent.

SpiraGrit – With SpiraGrit, you get a compact system that doesn’t take up much space. The bearings are not submerged and the components do not corrode quickly, which makes maintenance a breeze. It handles all flow rates.

What You Need to Consider

Whether you’re replacing equipment or planning a new system, you need to carefully weigh the water flow rates, longevity, and requirements. Experts can help you decide the best grit removal technology for an efficient, effective treatment system.

Would you like more information on equipment that helps with grit removal? Use the online form to get help finding the right system for your needs. You can also call (630) 837-5640.

How Technology and Data Is Improving Wastewater Treatment

Since government water quality standards were required, water is nothing like your ancestors experienced. Still, there are improvements that can be made. Using data and technology, wastewater treatment engineers continue to make strides to ensure that people throughout the world have clean, safe water.

A Brief History of Water Treatment Practices

Civilizations like Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, and Mesopotamia all strived to dispose of human waste to keep water sources clean. In the United States, Hans Christopher Christiansen helped launch the nation’s first public water department in Pennsylvania in 1755.

Baltimore, Maryland, and Boston, Massachusetts, were the first two cities to create municipal water treatment plants. Diseases like cholera were running rampant. These did not come into fruition until the mid-1800s. It wasn’t until the 1910s that chlorine was used to sanitize water. World War II led to new discoveries on treating water to make it clean and safe.

Surprisingly, despite the advancements, the U.S. government did not pass the Safe Drinking Water Act until 1974. At this point, tests were used to make sure the levels of certain contaminants were monitored and maintained.

Understanding How Wastewater is Processed

Wastewater is the water that travels through sewers or is trucked in after septic tank cleanings. It comes from washing machines, dishwashers, sinks, bathtubs, showers, and toilets. In a sewer, it also contains water that drains from streets on a rainy day or when the snow melts.

Wastewater contains everything from soap and cleaners to food scraps and human waste. It can be the water that comes from an industrial setting like a paper mill or manufacturing plant. For this water to be reused or returned to lakes and streams, it needs to be filtered and cleaned.

Cleaning wastewater requires multiple steps. First, the solids need to be filtered out. The remaining water, known as effluent, continues going through smaller and smaller screens that keep filtering the grit. That grit is disposed of in landfills and other facilities that can process it.

Aeration adds oxygen that can help break down gases and assist materials in the effluent as they decompose. This secondary step continues to help get rid of grit and other materials.

The third step is to help separate the sludge and scum from the wastewater. Sludge settles at the bottom is moved to digesters. Scum, such as oils and plastic materials, float to the top of the tank where mechanical rakes remove them.

Filtration is a fourth step that helps remove bacteria by running the wastewater through sand or carbon filters. In addition to removing bacteria from the water, iron is also removed.

In the final step, the filtered water is moved to tanks where chlorine helps kill off any remaining bacteria. As the chlorine destroys remaining bacteria, it also breaks down leaving minute traces of the chemical. At this point, it’s ready to enter rivers and become part of a natural water source again.

How Do Data and Technology Help?

Computers have become an important component in wastewater treatment. Not only do they help with research and data, but they also run the CAD software that can help design the right system for your needs. Once the blueprints are in place, you’ll be able to pick the equipment you need. Field engineers have the training and hands-on experience to make sure installations of entire systems go smoothly. If there are hiccups, the engineers are on-hand to figure out and implement a solution.

The EPA maintains the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Technology Database to make it easy to find Clean Water Act rules and guidelines. This resource helps make it easy to research the latest advancements, which can help companies hone their wastewater practices. You can search by topic, industry, pollutant, technology, or download the entire database.

Technology alone has led to many advancements in productivity and operational costs. Wastewater treatment systems of the past relied on humans to manage many of the controls and processes. While today’s computers can adjust the flow rate of wastewater and clean screens, humans once had to carefully monitor and manage those aspects.

Motorized rake systems remove oils, plastics, and other trash now, but humans used to have to rake these materials out. Screens are cleaned automatically. Computers can take readings, store them for management to use, and this makes it easier to manage overall costs and expenses.

Lakeside Equipment has been helping with wastewater treatment since 1928. Engineers and other wastewater specialists work with companies to create effective water treatment systems. The company can keep operating costs down and ease maintenance and repair requirements. Complete the online form to talk to a customer service representative.

How A Hauled Waste Receiving System Works

Hauled waste, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is waste that is comprised of sewage, domestic waste, non-domestic waste, or a combination of both types of waste. Some types of waste are toilet waste and domestic septage, ground water, sand or grease traps, restaurant grease, wastewater from drilling processes, and pass through from landfills. Hauled waste is generally transported by a hauler system which is discharged to a public facility, often known as a Publicly Owned Treatment Works.

Depending on where you live, your home is likely connected to either the city’s sanitary sewer collection system, or you may have an in-home septic system. A septic system is a highly efficient, self-contained, underground wastewater treatment system. The tank is a water-tight box that is connected to a pipe which connects to the public sewer system. Within the tank, solids are separated from wastewater, and the wastewater is what flows into the pipe that is connected to a drainfield of pipes that flow to the public system.

On the receiving end, the waste is received by a hauled waste system. This system works by removing debris and inorganic solids from all of the forms of waste, such as the domestic waste, restaurant grease, residual landfill solids, and other waste. A machine, which is the primary component of the hauled waste system is a piece of equipment that handles the waste with its screens which filter the waste. Some of the machines have cylinders with rotating screens, and various other mechanical functions that work to ensure that grease, grit and small debris don’t plug everything up. In some cases, a separate, additional grease trap might be connected to the main machine for added support. As a part of the process, the waste that is screened is essentially compacted, dewatered and reduced to a cleaner solid.

One problem that often occurs with hauled waste systems is that the waste is more concentrated and therefore is not equally distributed; this can cause several septage and maintenance problems. With a higher concentration, the screening process becomes more tedious, which reduces overall efficiency and has the likelihood to slow down operations. For these reasons, it is necessary to have a hauled waste system that is able to control for large amounts of waste for maximum functioning. Having a fully automated machine that has the capability to screen and filter large amounts of waste without being overburdened allows the waste to be unloaded more rapidly. The waste gets unloaded into a septic acceptance plant or waste hauler.

During the process of hauled waste removal there is a potential for contamination. Contamination may occur due to hazardous waste materials that Publicly Owned Treatment Works come into contact with, and this is certainly something to consider. To avoid contamination, maintenance or facility issues and any other adverse effects, a system that is designed to handle heavy solid loads and high grease concentrations, for example, is required. This can be obtained by using a high quality water treatment system. Of course, following the appropriate safety guidelines are compulsory.

The Environmental Protection Agency suggests these specific controls regarding the discharge of waste.

  • applying limits to non-domestic hauled waste,
  • issuing permits to waste haulers,
  • implementing tracking systems,
  • sampling loads, and
  • refusing all hauled waste.

As mentioned before, a high quality water treatment system is necessary. Not only does it take into account the above suggestions, but also offers these components and advantages:

  • Compact design with screening and grit removal in one unit
  • Security control station allows access for authorized haulers
  • All stainless steel construction resists corrosion
  • Available for indoor or outdoor environments
  • Multiple sized units to suit your application
  • Unload up to two (2) waste haulers at the same time

At Lakeside Equipment Corporation, we have considered how to manage a maximum efficiency water treatment system. We are proud not only of the individual components of our hauled waste systems, but of the full service we provide with it. Lakeside Equipment Corporation has customer specific designs to meet your unique needs, the latest in CAD-based engineering designs, experienced field service engineers to help with on-site installations, locally authorized service personnel to contact on a daily basis, and parts and inventory ready to ship when you need it. We also offer an option for dual inlets to allow two haulers to unload at the same time. Keep in mind that a pre-engineered design reduces engineering costs. Our integrated designs allow haulers to unload faster than any haulers on the market — again, creating maximum efficiency. Contact us today so we can assist with your waste removal needs!

Industrial Screw Pump Manufacturers – What To Look For When Choosing Who To Work With

Your business and the machines within it are only as good as the people who work alongside them. That’s why when you’re looking to invest in a project that requires an industrial screw pump and a partnership with its manufacturers, you want to ensure that you’re working with a company whose goals align with yours. A screw pump made by a reliable and trustworthy company will make your project easier from start to finish and beyond.  All you need to know is precisely what you’re looking for in a partner company and how to find it. Don’t be intimidated by the specificity of your need for a screw pump! No matter what the need, a potential business partner is a potential business partner, and partners of all stripes deserve the same basic research and respect.

Performing a Needs Assessment

Before you start choosing which industrial screw pump manufacturer you want to work with, you’ll need to perform a needs assessment in order to better understand what you’ll require of a partner and of your screw pump. Consider, of course, the screw pump’s function. Industrial screw pumps are used to move large amounts of water and other liquids from one area to another, thereby making it simpler for debris and the like to pass more easily through the system with which it is affiliated. The screw pump, then, prevents damage to the delicate parts by effectively separating reusable fluid from any solids that may have been included in the mix, be that inclusion intentional or otherwise.

Screw pumps are most frequently affiliated with water treatment plants, but they can also be used on a day to day basis in more engineering-oriented as well. As such, look for a manufacturer who specializes in the applications which most closely apply to your needs.

Location, Location, Location

While the modern age of technology has made it simpler to work with companies all over the world, you may still, when looking for a screw pump manufacturer, want to work with a company based a little closer to home. The installation of a screw pump inside your plant or business will require the attention and effort of dozens of outside employees, and if you’re working with a manufacturer who is located nearby or at a minimum offers service in your area, you’ll be able to meet these employees beforehand to ensure it is a good match.

If you’re feeling braver and find a manufacturer whose goals align with your own, even though they’re located a significant distance away, do what you can to try and meet with critical implementation team members in person. You’ll want to do what you can to treat your new screw pump partner like any other business partner. Communication and time spent face to face is key.

Reliability

It’s important to consider the reputation of your new partner alongside their location. If you find that local manufacturers are nearby but less than stellar in their work or product offerings, it’s natural that you may want to broaden your range. When searching for potential screw pump manufacturers don’t be afraid to ask a company representative about the previous projects they’ve worked on. Experience and reputation go hand in hand, and it’s especially important that your new partner makes good on both.

Communication

Having touched on communication already as a part of a partner’s location, it makes sense that the ability to frequently get in touch with a potential manufacturer would be important. There’s more to communication than that, though. When asking yourself, “What should I look for in a screw pump manufacturer,” you’ll want to ensure that you consider your potential partner’s ability to stay in touch with you. This means that an ideal screw pump manufacturer would not only get in touch while your screw pump was being installed, but that they would remain accessible after installation and offer on-going support and maintenance when needed.

Expected Schedule

Speaking of expectations: you’ll naturally want to have developed a schedule for yourself and your company by the time you start looking for a screw pump manufacturer to partner with. In your first meetings with a potential partner, it’s important to ensure that your workable schedules align. You will  want to consider the time it’ll take your potential partner to meet your needs for a screw pump. Outside of this, however, it’s important that your expectations of your partner’s ability to work and keep to a deadline are reasonable, and that their expectations of you are equally based in reality.

Estimated Price

Most importantly is your budget. When you start looking for a screw pump manufacturer to partner with, you’ll want a range of prices in mind so you can both pay your partner fairly and negotiate costs so that you remain in the black. Do your research. Find the screw pump manufacturers who work within your desired range and reach out to them to gather quotes regarding how expensive a partnership between the two of you may be.  Like all business partnerships, while price is important, make sure you are comparing apples to apples.  Experience and reputation often come at a premium.

Though their purpose may be complex, screw pump manufacturers are like any other manufacturer or business partner who you might start a partnership with. Make sure that your goals align, that your schedules remain flexible, and that you communicate with one another, and you’re likely to have the screw pump you need with little to no hassle!

How Does A Wastewater Treatment Plant Work?

According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), wastewater treatment is one of the most common forms of pollution control in the U.S. Lakeside Equipment Corporation is proud to supply equipment and systems that are used across the country at wastewater treatment plants, which are facilities that clean wastewater before discharging it back into the environment.

The Need For Wastewater Treatment Plants: Then and Now

Wastewater treatment plants were not always necessary. In the past, bacteria and other organisms found in waterways would break down sewage into harmless byproducts in a naturally occurring purification process. But, the bacteria and other organisms could not keep up with the increase in population and production of sewage. Wastewater is now sent to wastewater treatment plants—many of which use the same purification process found in nature to clean water.

Most wastewater treatment plants prepare wastewater for reuse in two separate stages: the primary and secondary stage.

The Primary Stage of Wastewater Treatment

Sewage enters the primary stage of treatment as soon as it arrives at a wastewater treatment facility. First, it is sent through a screen that is designed to remove large pieces of debris that could damage Lakeside equipment used elsewhere in the facility. Some facilities have multiple screens in place to remove objects and materials of different sizes from the sewage.

After passing through the screen, the sewage water moves into the grit chamber. Grit can include sand, gravel, eggshells, or any other type of solid material that makes it through the screening process. There are several different types of grit chambers, but Lakeside’s aerated grit chamber is among the most popular. The wastewater flows in a spiral pattern inside this chamber. Air is slowly introduced into one side of the chamber, creating a perpendicular pattern that separates heavier materials from the rest of the water. The heavier materials, or grit, then sink to the bottom of the chamber.

Even though the wastewater has been through screens and a grit chamber, it still contains other materials that need to be removed. The wastewater slowly flows through a sedimentation tank, and as it flows, the solids that remain in the water start to drift towards the bottom of the tank.

This is the final step in the primary stage of the wastewater treatment process. At this point, the majority of the solids have been removed from the water. But, the water is still not clean enough to be released back into the environment, so it enters the secondary stage so it can be purified even further.

The Secondary Stage of Wastewater Treatment

The secondary stage of the treatment process is designed to remove up to 85% of organic matter that remains in the wastewater. There are a number of different ways to achieve this goal, but many facilities use either the trickling filter or activated sludge process.

If the facility uses the trickling filter method, the wastewater is pumped into an area that contains between three to six feet of stones after leaving the sedimentation tank. Bacteria and other small organisms grow on these stones, so they consume or break down the organic matter in the water as it flows through the tank. The water is then removed from the trickling filter through pipes and sent back to a sedimentation tank for yet another round of purification.

Most facilities use the activated sludge process, which takes place immediately following the sedimentation tank in the primary stage of treatment. The wastewater enters an aeration tank, where it is mixed with sludge. Air is then pumped into the aeration tank to facilitate the growth of bacteria and other small organisms within the sludge. The bacteria and other microorganisms break down the organic matter in the water into harmless byproducts. The wastewater will remain in the aeration tank for between three to six hours, which gives the bacteria and microorganisms plenty of time to break down all of the remaining organic material. After leaving the aeration tank, the wastewater is usually sent to another sedimentation tank to separate the solids from the water.

Regardless of which method is used, the wastewater will go through one more round of treatment before it is released back into the environment.          After the water leaves the sedimentation tank in the secondary stage of the treatment process, it is sent into tanks where it is exposed to chlorine. Wastewater typically spends between 15-20 minutes inside these tanks with chlorine. This chemical kills the harmful bacteria that could be lurking in the water, and it also gets rid of the unpleasant smell of wastewater. Wastewater treatment plants can kill up to 99% of bacteria in water with chlorine, so this is an important step in the process.

Some facilities do not use chlorine to kill bacteria in the final stage of the treatment process. Instead, these facilities use alternatives such as ultraviolet (UV) light or ozone to kill bacteria in the water before releasing it to the environment. These alternatives do not involve the use of chemicals, so they are considered safer for the environment and wildlife.

After the water is sent through this final stage, it is released into waterways in the community. The final stage ensures that the vast majority of bacteria in the water is killed so it will not harm humans, animals, or the environment once it has been discharged.

Treating wastewater is a complex process that involves the use of high-tech and reliable equipment. Lakeside is proud to supply the equipment and purification systems that wastewater treatment plants need to filter, clean, and disinfect water before it is sent back into local waterways.  If you are interested in purchasing Lakeside equipment or systems, speak to one of our representatives today by calling 630-837-5640.

How Does the Biological Wastewater Treatment Process Work?

There are two main types of wastewater treatment: primary and secondary. Primary treatment is a fairly basic process that is used to remove suspended solid waste and reduce its biochemical oxygen demand in order to increase dissolved oxygen in the water. It’s estimated that primary treatment only reduces biochemical oxygen demand by about 30% and suspended solids by up to 60%. Therefore, the water needs to be treated again in order to remove additional contaminants.

Secondary treatment involves complex biological processes that are used to remove organic matter that was not removed during primary treatment. There are many different kinds of biological wastewater treatments, however each treatment can be classified as either an aerobic or anaerobic treatment depending on whether or not oxygen is present.

What Are Biological Aerobic Treatments?

If a treatment is classified as a biological aerobic treatment, it means it takes place in the presence of oxygen. Aerobic treatments work faster and result in cleaner water than anaerobic treatments, which is why they are preferred.

The most popular aerobic treatment is the activated sludge process. At the start of the activated sludge process, wastewater moves into an aeration tank that is pumped full of oxygen. Aerating the wastewater increases microbial growth, which speeds up the decomposition of the organic matter that is still in the water. Then, this wastewater is transferred into a secondary clarifier, which is also known as a secondary settler or settling tank. The sludge, or waste, within the water will start to separate, leaving only the clean and treated water behind. This is one of the most efficient ways to biologically treat wastewater.

Another popular aerobic treatment is the trickling filter process. During the trickling filter process, wastewater flows over a bed of rocks, gravel, ceramic, peat moss, or plastic. As the wastewater flows, the microorganisms in the water quickly start to attach to the bed. A layer of microbial film will soon start to grow over the bed. Over time, the aerobic microorganisms found in this layer of microbial film will start to break down the organic matter found in the water. If needed, oxygen can be infused or splashed into the wastewater to maintain aerobic conditions.

The trickling filter process can rapidly reduce high concentrations of organic matter in the water, however there are disadvantages to this method as well. A trained professional will need to watch over this process from the start to finish, so this may not be the best choice for facilities with limited resources. Clogs are also fairly common, so the trained professional will need to know how to identify and fix this issue.

Some facilities use aerated lagoons as opposed to the activated sludge process. With this method, the wastewater sits in a treatment pond, where it is mechanically aerated. Pumping oxygen into the pond will increase microbial growth and speed up the decomposition of organic matter. However, unlike the activated sludge process, the water is not moved into another tank after it has been aerated. Instead, the separation of the sludge and the clean water happens within the treatment pond.

Using an oxidation pond is another way to biologically treat the wastewater. This process involves removing the organic matter from wastewater using an interaction between bacteria, algae, and other microorganisms. This method may seem similar to an aerated lagoon, but it is far more complex and it takes much longer to achieve the desired results. This process also requires a lot more land space than the others, so it is typically not used in areas that are densely populated.

What Are Biological Anaerobic Treatments?

Biological anaerobic treatments take place in the absence of oxygen. Aerobic treatments are usually preferred, however it is best to use an anaerobic treatment when dealing with highly concentrated wastewater.

The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is a single-tank anaerobic treatment, which means it takes place in one tank. This process begins with the wastewater entering through the bottom of the reactor tank. As the wastewater naturally starts to flow upwards, it encounters a sludge blanket that is suspended within the tank. The sludge blanket consists of microbial microorganisms that break down organic matter within the wastewater. When the wastewater encounters the sludge blanket, the microorganisms quickly break down the organic matter, leaving clean water behind to rise to the top of the tank. There are other similar anaerobic treatments, including the anaerobic filter, which involves a filter that has microbial microorganisms on its surface.

What Happens After Wastewater is Biologically Treated?

It’s estimated that biological treatments can remove up to 90% of the wastewater’s contaminants. Because all of the contaminants have not been removed, the wastewater is usually sent through a tertiary treatment process after the biological treatment. During this stage, heavy metals, nutrients, and other impurities are removed from the wastewater.

The most common type of tertiary treatment involves the use of chlorine, which is a powerful disinfectant. Small amounts of chlorine are added to the water to remove the remaining impurities before the water is discharged into the environment. There are other ways to disinfect the water that do not involve chemicals. Many facilities avoid the use of chlorine by using UV light to treat the water. Regardless of which method is used, it is estimated that about 99% of all contaminants have been removed from the wastewater after it has completed this treatment.

Since 1928, Lakeside Equipment Corporation has been committed to providing clean and healthy water to people around the world using innovative biological treatment processes. Contact Lakeside Equipment Corporation to learn more about our biological treatment systems. Call 630-837-5640 or visit our website to connect with one of our knowledgeable representatives today.

How Do Hydropower Trash Rakes Work?

The importance of removing contaminants from wastewater cannot be understated. If wastewater is not properly treated before it is returned to the environment, it could harm the environment or negatively impact the health of people in the community.

The wastewater goes through a lengthy treatment process that involves a number of different steps. Early on in the process, the water is pushed through a screen, which filters out large pieces of debris. The debris must be cleaned off of these screens periodically, otherwise the screens will be less effective. To clean these screens, it’s best to use a trash rake.

What is a Trash Rake?

Trash rakes are heavy devices that are used to remove large pieces of debris from screens at hydropower facilities. Most trash rakes are designed with long arms that reach into the bottom of the basin. The arm of the trash rake then moves upwards across the screen, picking up pieces of debris along the way.

Some trash rakes simply drop the debris that is collected on a nearby deck so it can be manually removed by workers at the facility. Other types of trash rake move the debris away from the deck and drop it into a bin designated for this type of waste.

What Are Cable Operated Rakes?

There are two main categories of trash rakes: cable operated rakes and hydraulically operated rakes. A cable operated rake system consists of a cable winch and rake arm. The rake arm scrapes across the screen to remove large pieces of debris, which is then deposited in a dumpster.

The Catronic Series trash rack sits on the deck located above the screens. It can be used as a stationery unit to clean a single screen or as a moving unit that is capable of cleaning multiple screens. Another cable operated rake system is the Monorail Series trash rake. Instead of sitting on the deck, this type of trash rake moves back and forth along a monorail structure that is built above the screens. Because it moves along the monorail, this trash rake can be used to clean multiple screens within the same general area.

There are benefits to both the Catronic Series and Monorail Series trash rake systems. One benefit of the Monorail Series trash rake is it does not take up space on the deck, whereas the Catronic Series trash rake does. Both of these systems use low maintenance energy efficient equipment that can easily be repaired and cleaned away from the water that is being treated. The install for these raking systems is easy, too. This means facilities can install either one of these systems without having to replace their existing screens or make any other modifications.

What Are Hydraulically Operated Rakes?

Lakeside’s hydraulically operated rakes are ideal for hydropower plants, pumping stations, wastewater treatment plants, and other industrial applications.

The Hydronic T Series trash rake system features a telescoping design that can clean at inclinations of up to 90 degrees. This system can run without the use of chains, guides, and sprockets, which makes it easier to operate. The pressure that the rake applies to the screen can also be adjusted to minimize the wear and tear.

The Hydronic K Series trash rake system is designed with a long arm that can reach depths of up to 100 feet. The arm is also capable of removing larger objects from the water such as trees and rootstocks. Depending on your facility’s needs, the K Series system can remain stationary to clean a single screen or it can swivel or travel to reach other screens.

Another hydraulically operated raking system is the Hydronic Multifunctional (M) Series. The M Series is designed with an articulating arm and a telescoping rake that can reach depths of up to 150 feet. There are several different rake heads that can be used on this system, including a triple jaw gripper that is capable of lifting more debris, and an orange peel grapple that is ideal for removing debris from the bottom of the screen.

Although this system can be semi-automatic or fully automatic, there is also the option of manually operating it out of the driver cab. It is best to manually operate the system to remove large pieces of debris from the surface.

Finally, there is the Hydronic H Series trash rake system. The other systems mentioned above are designed to clean screens that feature vertical bars. However, the H Series trash rake system is specifically designed to clean screens with horizontal bars. This rake starts at one side of the screen and pushes the debris caught between the bars to the other side of the screen. Then, the debris that has been collected can either be removed manually or with a grab rake.

Self-Cleaning Screens

Trash rake systems are used to clean screens, however it’s important to note that there are also self-cleaning screens available. The CO-TEC screen, for example, is designed with rake teeth that can be extended between the bars on the screen. Once extended, the rake teeth can then be lifted upwards, dragging debris in the same way that a trash rake does. If the screens at a facility need to be replaced, this type of product should be considered. However, facilities that are not interested in replacing their existing screens should stick to a trash rake system instead.

To learn more about hydropower trash rakes or to place an order, contact Lakeside Equipment Corporation today. Lakeside Equipment Corporation has been committed to improving the quality of water resources for decades. We currently provide high quality products and reliable services to municipalities and companies around the world. Call 630-837-5640 or visit our website to connect with one of our knowledgeable representatives today.

Centrifugal Pumps vs. Positive Displacement Pumps

The pumps that are used to treat wastewater can be classified as either a centrifugal or positive displacement pump. There are pros and cons to both of these types of pumps, so it’s not always easy to determine which one is right for your needs. To make the right choice, it’s important to learn the differences between centrifugal and positive displacement pumps.

How Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Pumps Operate

To understand how these pumps are different, you must first learn how each pump operates. Positive displacement pumps draw a fixed volume of liquid into the pump through the suction valve, trapping it within a cavity found inside the pump, then forcing it out through the outlet valve. The manner in which the liquid is forced out through the outlet valve will vary depending on the type of positive displacement pump. For example, a piston positive displacement pump is designed to force liquid out using a piston that moves up and down through the body of the pump. Other positive displacement pump models, such as screw pumps and gear pumps, do not have components that move up and down. Instead, these pumps use rotating components to force liquid from one side of the pump to the other.

Centrifugal pumps are known for their simplistic design. The most important component of a centrifugal pump is the impeller, which is a rotating device that moves fluid through the pump. The impeller rotates to draw fluid into the pump, then transfers kinetic energy from the motor to the fluid, which moves through the pump and exits through the discharge valve.

How Pressure Affects the Flow Rate

One of the main advantages of a positive displacement pump is its ability to produce a consistent flow rate. The flow rate of a positive displacement pump will remain constant when there are changes in pressure.

However, this is not the case with centrifugal pumps, which are designed to react to changes in pressure. The efficiency of a centrifugal pump peaks at a specific level of pressure. Whenever the pressure is not at this specific level, the efficiency of this pump will decrease. Therefore, the flow rate of centrifugal pumps will be affected by changes in pressure.

How Viscosity Affects the Flow Rate

Another difference between centrifugal and positive displacement pumps is the way the viscosity of the fluid affects the flow rate. As viscosity increases, the flow rate of a centrifugal pump will begin to rapidly decrease. The exact opposite is true of positive displacement pumps. As the viscosity increases, the flow rate of a positive displacement pump increases as well. This is because highly viscous liquids quickly fill the internal clearances of a positive displacement pump, which produces a greater volumetric efficiency. For this reason, it is important to choose a positive displacement pump to handle liquids that are highly viscous.

Shearing of Liquids

The speed of the spinning impeller found within the centrifugal pump design makes it less than ideal for handling shear sensitive mediums. Positive displacement pumps are not designed with any high-speed components, which means these pumps will not apply a great deal of shear to mediums. Because of this, it is best to choose a positive displacement pump when handling mediums that are shear sensitive.

Suction Lift Capabilities

Some centrifugal pumps will have suction lift capabilities, however the standard models do not. Positive displacement pumps do have suction lift capabilities. Consider the piston pump, which is a traditional positive displacement pump model. The piston is the component that moves up and down to force water from one side of the pump to the other. When the piston moves upwards, the pressure in the body of the pump goes down, which will open the suction valve and allow water to flow freely into the pump. The suction valve will close when the piston moves downward and increases the pressure inside the body of the pump, which pushes the water out of the pump.

When to Use Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Pumps

When choosing a pump, it’s important to consider the conditions in which the pump will operate. It is best to use a centrifugal pump to handle a large volume of low viscosity fluid in a low pressure environment. The centrifugal pump works best when it is transferring water, however it can also handle the transfer of low viscosity chemicals and fuels.

Because of its simplistic design, centrifugal pumps can be made out of a number of different materials, including plastic, stainless steel, and cast iron. This makes it more versatile since its design can be adjusted to fit your needs. This type of pump is also very compact, which makes it the ideal choice when there is not much space for a pump.

Positive displacement pumps are often installed to pump oil, sewage, and slurry. Positive displacement pumps are also ideal for pumping fluids that contain solid materials. In general, positive displacement pumps are used whenever the conditions are not ideal for centrifugal pumps. For example, the flow rate of a centrifugal pump is greatly affected by changes in pressure. Therefore, it is best to use a positive displacement pump when there will be changes in pressure, since this will not impact the flow rate of this type of pump.

To learn more about centrifugal and positive displacement pumps or to place an order, contact Lakeside Equipment Corporation today. For decades, Lakeside Equipment Corporation has been committed to providing high quality and reliable products and services to customers around the world. Let us guide you through the process of finding the right centrifugal or positive displacement pump for your needs. Call 630-837-5640 or visit our website to connect with one of our knowledgeable representatives today.

Open vs. Enclosed Screw Pumps

For decades, engineers have used screw pumps for wastewater plant lift stations, storm water pumping, and other industrial applications. These pumps are used to move large volumes of liquid, but their design also makes it easy for large objects to pass through without clogging the system. This means water that is contaminated with various objects can be pumped with ease.

Screw pumps can also be operated when no water is present. This means there is no need to install additional parts to stop the pump from running in dry conditions. The pump can continue to operate regardless of how little water is present.

Screw pumps are not only efficient, they are also low maintenance. The pumps are designed with very few moving parts, and these parts constantly run at a slow speed. This innovative design minimizes wear and tear and the need for repairs.

Screw pumps can be used in a variety of industrial settings. However, there are two main types of screw pumps that engineers must choose between: open and enclosed. Before placing an order, it’s important to understand the differences between these two designs.

An Introduction to Open and Enclosed Screw Pumps

Before learning about the benefits of both open and enclosed screw pumps, it’s best to learn the differences between their designs.

An open screw pump has four components: a spiral screw, upper bearings, lower bearings, and a drive assembly. Open screw pumps are placed within concrete or steel troughs at a slight angle, leaving their screw-shaped design exposed.

Enclosed screw pumps are very similar to open screw pumps, however they are encased within a tube so their screw-shaped design is not exposed. Because the pump lies within a tube, it does not need to be placed within a cement or steel trough.

There are two types of enclosed screw pumps: Type S and Type C. Both of these types are enclosed within tubes, however the tube in a Type S design is stationary, whereas the tube in a Type C is not. Type C pumps are designed with two spiral flights welded to the inside of the pump’s tube, which rotates as it operates.

The Benefits of Open Screw Pumps

The open screw pump is known for its simplicity and reliability. These pumps are incredibly low maintenance as it is, however they can become even more durable. If the lower bearing is designed with a permanently greased lubricated roller bearing or a sleeve bearing, this will minimize the wear and tear even further.

If a repair is needed, it may be easier to identify the issue on an open screw pump than it would be on an enclosed pump. This is because the open design of an open screw pump makes it possible to see all of the moving parts.

The bottom of an open screw pump can operate in both submerged and non-submerged conditions, which makes it more versatile than other screw pumps.

The Benefits of Enclosed Screw Pumps

As previously mentioned, enclosed screw pumps are encased within a tube, which eliminates the need for a steel or concrete trough. Because it does not need a trough, it is considered easier to install than an open screw pump. It’s also a better choice for clients who are in need of a quick replacement and do not have the time to install a trough.

Both open and enclosed screw pumps are efficient, however the Type C pump operates at the highest efficiency. In fact, it is estimated that the Type C pump is between 5-10% more efficient than the open screw pump, which is why it has become a popular choice.

The Type C enclosed pump has a maximum inclination of 45 degrees, whereas the open screw pump and Type S enclosed pump both have a maximum inclination of 40 degrees. The difference between 40 and 45 degrees may not seem significant, but it results in the Type C enclosed pump leaving a much smaller footprint.

There are benefits to the Type S enclosed screw pump, too. The top of Type S enclosed pumps can be fixed in place or mounted onto a pivot. If it is mounted onto a pivot, the tube can be repositioned to adjust the pumping rate. Both the open and Type C designs do not have this flexibility.

How to Choose the Right Type of Screw Pump

There are benefits to both open and enclosed screw pumps, which can make it difficult to determine which is right for your needs. Instead of focusing on the design of the pump, think about how the pump will be used. These are the factors that should be taken into consideration when selecting a screw pump:

  • Capacity
  • Speed
  • Inclination
  • Number of Flights
  • Horsepower

For example, the number of flights in a screw pump will have an impact on the output capacity of the system. This is because each additional flight increases the output capacity of the pump by about 25%. Therefore, it’s important to calculate the maximum output capacity needed so you can determine how many flights you will need. By approaching the decision in this manner, you will be able to select the perfect open or enclosed screw pump for your needs.

To learn more about open and enclosed screw pumps or to place an order, contact Lakeside Equipment Corporation today. At Lakeside Equipment Corporation, we are committed to treating water so it can be used as drinking water or safely returned to the environment. Since 1928, we have provided local governments and corporations with the high quality services and top-of-the-line equipment they need to help us achieve this goal. Call 630-837-5640 or visit our website to connect with a representative today.